How are children across developmental stages using and perceiving AI? What skills are important for developing AI literacy in youth? How are programs like ChatGPT affecting students’ schoolwork? How is AI influencing children’s understanding of the world around them?

Children and Screens’ Research-at-a-Glance on “AI and Children” provides a quick, printable, and accessible resource with current and quality research on children’s perceptions and use of AI.

Aeschlimann, S., Bleiker, M., Wechner, M., & Gampe, A. (2020). Communicative and social consequences of interactions with voice assistants. Computers in Human Behavior, 112, 106466.

Caliskan, A. (2023). Artificial intelligence, bias, and ethics. In Proceedings of the Thirty-Second International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 7007-7013.

Common Sense Media. (2019). The Common Sense Census: Media Use by Tweens and Teens. 

Common Sense Media. (2023). Parents and students are optimistic about AI, but parents have a lot to learn to catch up to their kids – and want rules and ratings to help them.

Druga, S., Williams, R., Park, H. W., & Breazeal, C. (2018, June). How smart are the smart toys? Children and parents’ agent interaction and intelligence attribution. Proceedings of the 17th ACM conference on interaction design and children, 231-240. 

EdChoice & Morning Consult. (2023). The Public, Parents, and K-12 Education.

Family Online Safety Institute. (2023). Generative AI: Emerging Habits, Hopes, and Fears.

Gampe, A., Zahner-Ritter, K., Müller, J. J., & Schmid, S. R. (2023). How children speak with their voice assistant Sila depends on what they think about her. Computers in human behavior, 143(12), 107693.

Girouard-Hallam, L. N., & Danovitch, J. H. (2022). Children’s trust in and learning from voice assistants. Developmental Psychology, 58(4), 646–661.

Internet Matters. (2020). Living the future: The technological family and the connected home. 

Liang, W., Yuksekgonul, M., Mao, Y., Wu, E., & Zou, J. (2023). GPT detectors are biased against non-native English writers. Patterns, 4(7).

Michaelson, E. & Carter, N. (2024). The 2024 K–12 Administrator AI Report: Perceptions, Practices, and Potential. Imagine Learning.

Ranard, B. L., Park, S., Jia, Y., Zhang, Y., Alwan, F., Celi, L. A., & Lusczek, E. R. (2024). Minimizing bias when using artificial intelligence in critical care medicine. Journal of Critical Care, 82, 154796.

Su, J., & Yang, W. (2023). Artificial Intelligence and Robotics for Young Children: Redeveloping the Five Big  Ideas Framework. ECNU Review of Education, 0(0).

UNICEF. (2021). Policy guidance on AI for children. 

Vicente, L., & Matute, H. (2023). Humans inherit artificial intelligence biases. Scientific Reports, 13(1), 1–13.

Xu, Y., Wang, D., Collins, P., Lee, H., & Warschauer, M. (2021). Same benefits, different communication patterns: Comparing Children’s reading with a conversational agent vs. a human partner. Computers & Education, 161, 104059.

Xu, Y., Aubele, J., Vigil, V., Bustamante, A. S., Kim, Y. S., & Warschauer, M. (2022). Dialogue with a conversational agent promotes children’s story comprehension via enhancing engagement. Child Development, 93(2), e149-e167.