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How are children across developmental stages using and perceiving AI? What skills are important for developing AI literacy in youth? How are programs like ChatGPT affecting students’ schoolwork? How is AI influencing children’s understanding of the world around them?

Children and Screens’ Research-at-a-Glance on “AI and Children” provides a quick, printable, and accessible resource with current and quality research on children’s perceptions and use of AI.

Aeschlimann, S., Bleiker, M., Wechner, M., & Gampe, A. (2020). Communicative and social consequences of interactions with voice assistants. Computers in Human Behavior, 112, 106466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106466

Caliskan, A. (2023). Artificial intelligence, bias, and ethics. In Proceedings of the Thirty-Second International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 7007-7013.  https://doi.org/10.24963/ijcai.2023/799

Common Sense Media. (2019). The Common Sense Census: Media Use by Tweens and Teens. www.commonsensemedia.org/research/the-common-sense-census-media-use-by-tweens-and-teens-2019 

Common Sense Media. (2023). Parents and students are optimistic about AI, but parents have a lot to learn to catch up to their kids – and want rules and ratings to help them. https://www.commonsensemedia.org/sites/default/files/featured-content/files/common-sense-ai-polling-memo-may-10-2023-final.pdf

Druga, S., Williams, R., Park, H. W., & Breazeal, C. (2018, June). How smart are the smart toys? Children and parents’ agent interaction and intelligence attribution. Proceedings of the 17th ACM conference on interaction design and children, 231-240. doi.org/10.1145/3202185.3202741 

EdChoice & Morning Consult. (2023). The Public, Parents, and K-12 Education. https://edchoice.morningconsultintelligence.com/assets/272218.pdf

Family Online Safety Institute. (2023). Generative AI: Emerging Habits, Hopes, and Fears. www.fosi.org/policy-research/emerging-habits-hopes-and-fears

Gampe, A., Zahner-Ritter, K., Müller, J. J., & Schmid, S. R. (2023). How children speak with their voice assistant Sila depends on what they think about her. Computers in human behavior, 143(12), 107693. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2023.107693

Girouard-Hallam, L. N., & Danovitch, J. H. (2022). Children’s trust in and learning from voice assistants. Developmental Psychology, 58(4), 646–661. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0001318

Internet Matters. (2020). Living the future: The technological family and the connected home. https://www.internetmatters.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Internet-Matters-Living-For-The-Future-Report.pdf 

Liang, W., Yuksekgonul, M., Mao, Y., Wu, E., & Zou, J. (2023). GPT detectors are biased against non-native English writers. Patterns, 4(7). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.patter.2023.100779

Michaelson, E. & Carter, N. (2024). The 2024 K–12 Administrator AI Report: Perceptions, Practices, and Potential. Imagine Learning. https://www.imaginelearning.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/01/IL-Admin-Perspective-AI-Survey-Report.pdf

Ranard, B. L., Park, S., Jia, Y., Zhang, Y., Alwan, F., Celi, L. A., & Lusczek, E. R. (2024). Minimizing bias when using artificial intelligence in critical care medicine. Journal of Critical Care, 82, 154796. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2024.154796

Su, J., & Yang, W. (2023). Artificial Intelligence and Robotics for Young Children: Redeveloping the Five Big  Ideas Framework. ECNU Review of Education, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/20965311231218013

UNICEF. (2021). Policy guidance on AI for children. https://www.unicef.org/globalinsight/media/2356/file/UNICEF-Global-Insight-policy-guidance-AI-children-2.0-2021.pdf 

Vicente, L., & Matute, H. (2023). Humans inherit artificial intelligence biases. Scientific Reports, 13(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-42384-8

Xu, Y., Wang, D., Collins, P., Lee, H., & Warschauer, M. (2021). Same benefits, different communication patterns: Comparing Children’s reading with a conversational agent vs. a human partner. Computers & Education, 161, 104059. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.104059

Xu, Y., Aubele, J., Vigil, V., Bustamante, A. S., Kim, Y. S., & Warschauer, M. (2022). Dialogue with a conversational agent promotes children’s story comprehension via enhancing engagement. Child Development, 93(2), e149-e167. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13708